1 GBD 2017 Child and Adolescent Health Contributors. (2019). Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors in Child and Adolescent Health, 1990 to 2017: Findings from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors 2017 Study. JAMA Pediatrics, 173(6), e190337. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2019.0337

2 UNICEF. Children and adolescents with disabilities in LAC

3 Owen, R. M., Capper, B., & Lavy, C. (2018). Clubfoot treatment in 2015: a global perspective. BMJ Global Health, 3(4). doi:10.1136/bmjgh-2018-000852

4 Grimes, C. E., Holmer, H., Maraka, J., Ayana, B., Hansen, L., & Lavy C. (2016). Cost-effectiveness of club-foot treatment in low-income and middle-income countries by the Ponseti method.BMJ Global Health, 1(1):e000023 doi: 10.1136/bmjgh-2015-000023

Laaveg, S.J. & Ponseti, I. V. (1980). Long-term results of treatment of congenital club foot. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume, Jan;62(1):23-31

6 Kuper, H., & Heydt, P. (2019). The Missing Billion: Access to Health Services for 1 Billion People with Disabilities. Missing Billion.

7 United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs. (2018). Disability and Development Report: Realizing the Sustainable Development Goals by, for and with Persons with Disabilities. Retrieved from

8 World Health Organization. (2011). World Report on Disability. Geneva: World Health Organization.

9 Adugna, M. B., Nabbouh, F., Shehata, S., & Ghahari, S. (2020, Jan 6). Barriers and Facilitators to Healthcare Access for Children with Disabilities in Low and Middle Income sub-Saharan African Countries: A Scoping Review. BMC Health Services Research, 20(1), 15. doi:10.1186/s12913-019-4822-6.

10 AT Scale Global Partnership for Assistive Technology. (February 2019). Strategy Overview. Retrieved from

11 Bright, T., Wallace, S., & Kuper, H. (2018). A Systematic Review of Access to Rehabilitation for People with Disabilities in Low- and Middle-Income Countries. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 15(10), 2165. doi:10.3390/ijerph15102165

12 UNICEF. (2007). Promoting the Rights of Children with Disabilities: Innocenti Digest No. 13. UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre.

13 Learning, Acting and Building for Rehabilitation in Health Systems Consortium (ReLAB-HS). (n.d.). Retrieved from

14 AT Scale Global Partnership for Assistive Technology. (n.d.). The Cars for Investing in Assistive Technology: The dramatic economic, health, and social benefits of assisting a billion people to live fulfilling and dignified lives. Retrieved from

15 UNDP Latin America and the Caribbean, Challenges posed by the COVID-19 pandemic in the health of women, children, and adolescents in Latin America and the Caribbean. Arachu Castro.  September 2020.

16 UNICEF. Children and adolescents with disabilities in LAC

17 UNICEF . Programmatic Guidance Notes for Country Offices on Children and Adolescents with Disabilities, 2018-2021, Latin America and the Caribbean regional office.

18 Mai, C. T., Isenburg, J. L., Canfield, M. A., Meyer, R. E., Correa, A., Alverson, C. J., . . . Kirby, R. S. (2019). National population-based estimates for major birth defects, 2010-2014. Birth Defects Research, 111(18).

[19] 139 newborns were enrolled in clubfoot treatment at five clinics in Parguay from March 2020- March 2021. During the same time period, based on population and birth estimates, there were approximately 170 new cases of clubfoot.

[20] Tebbens, Radboud J. Duintjer, Mark A. Pallansch, Stephen L. Cochi, Steven G.F. Wassilak, Jennifer Linkins, Roland W. Sutter, R. Bruce Aylwarde, Kimberly M. Thompson (2011) – Economic analysis of the global polio eradication initiative. In Vaccine 29 (2011) 334–343. 

[21] Ochsmann, Sophie. Estimation of the total number of paralytic polio cases based on Tebbens et al. (2011). Our World in Data accessed on 5/4/2021:


[23] History of clubfoot management. Global Clubfoot Initiative.

24 Fortis-Olmedo IO, Ortiz-De Montellano-Gallaga MJ, Altamirano-Duarte E, Martínez-Enríquez MJ, Ardón-Dubón JJ. Apego al método de Ponseti por parte de los familiares como determinante en el éxito del tratamiento del pie equinovaro [Adherence to the Ponseti method by family members as a determinant in the success of club foot treatment]. Acta Ortop Mex. 2020 Jan-Feb;34(1):43-46. Spanish. PMID: 33230999.

25 Formative program report on clubfoot treatment in Paraguay by founding members of Global Clubfoot Initiative, 2008

26 MiracleFeet and Fundación  Solidaridad report on progress of Paraguay program, 2018.

27 Sakellariou, D., Malfitano, A.P.S. & Rotarou, E.S. Disability inclusiveness of government responses to COVID-19 in South America: a framework analysis study. Int J Equity Health 19, 131 (2020).